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Why I Dislike the Term “Deep Tissue Massage”

“So do you do deep tissue?”  “This one person goes real deep. I’m usually hurting”

Deep Tissue Massage” can be found advertised at most of your general massage studios as a special kind of massage that involves deeper pressure and reaches the deeper layers of muscle tissue and fascia.  If you look at the anatomy of our body, we have multiple layers of fascia (a sort of webbing that holds all of our skeletal structures in place and connects our body parts into one working system) and different muscles that layer each other along different paths of our body (for example, our pec minor lies underneath our pec major in our chest; our rhomboid lies underneath our middle trapezius in our upper back).  Whether or not an individual needs certain deeper or superficial structures to be manipulated will always depend on the person and situation; therefore, whatever kind of massage is supposedly being done (Swedish, deep tissue, trigger point massage, etc.) should not matter, as certain techniques may or may not need to be used depending on the client and the assessment that is done.  Swedish style kneading may work well for a certain structure while Active Release or Rockblades might work well for another.  The deeper pec minor might need to be worked on in one situation while maybe its just the pec major in another.  So if you go and pay money for a massage, you should want to receive the appropriate work for what your body and your system is presenting with. 

While simply trying to generalize and/or box in these massage terms or “styles” is something I’m not particularly fond of as a Licensed Massage Therapist, an even bigger irritant is the fact that “deep tissue” work is often performed with an excessive amount of compression that leaves people worse off than when they came in.  I have had more than one occasion where a new client has come in from elsewhere with multiple bruises in multiple locations of their body from the “deep work” that they got.  While some minor bruising can sometimes occur with certain modalities if a structure responds a certain way to treatment, excessive bruising is usually not a good thing, especially if its happening often.  Also, flailing around on the table like a fish out of water because the “massage” is so painful is not doing anybody any good.  I received a massage like this once well over a decade ago, before I ever knew I was going to go into manual therapy, and my body was so sore and trashed that my lifting sucked for an entire week.  I walked out of that treatment room worse than when I went in.  Some soreness after receiving tissue work? Totally normal.  So trashed that you are weaker for a whole week?  Shouldn’t happen.  And this is not limited to massage therapists or massages; it can be just as bad with soft tissue treatments from certain chiropractors, physical therapists, etc.  Excessively intense work is usually unnecessary and often does more harm than good. 

 When it comes down to it, anytime we intervene manually with someone’s body, we are applying a stress to the nervous system and we are giving an input to the brain.  If that input is pain from touch that is too compressive and intense, what is that brain likely to do?  It sure as hell isn’t going to relax anything.  Those structures that we are trying to release, calm down and get to move better end up clamping down even harder as your brain tries to protect things.  The “deep tissue work” just made things worse.    

No photo description available.

Treatment needs to be appropriate for what is found.  If someone is excessively flared up and is overly sympathetic (stuck in fight or flight mode), full body relaxation work with appropriate techniques to calm the nervous system down might be needed.  If they have a rotated pelvis with certain muscles that are overactive, maybe Active Release and specific instruments are needed.  Maybe a specific form of trigger point release is needed.  If the superficial fascia is not gliding well in one direction, perhaps some fascial glide work will do the trick.  Regardless of which of these modalities is used, the depth that is needed and used will always depend on the structure that needs work, how that structure and adjacent structures are moving/sliding, the tone that they display, and the state of the nervous system.  This is precisely why I simply offer “manual therapy.”  What techniques I need to use and what I need to treat will depend on what each client presents with.  ART? Could be a great tool for the job and it often is but the presentation will help guide whether I use it.  Blades? Stones?  Great for the right presentations.   Deep tissue massage?  Some deeper work may or may not be needed depending on the presentation but either way, the generic nature of the term still isn’t doing it for me.  Heck, sometimes there isn’t much hands on work needed at all and some manual breathing techniques are all that are needed to do the trick. 

Now, I have the luxury of doing specific work with clients in my own facility and people come and see me because they need help with specific problems.  That being said, I understand that some clients do come in wanting certain modalities and as a straight massage studio, certain “options” are needed as part of a business model , and if someone comes in for a full body massage of any particular style (especially at a massage studio), obviously you need to give them their massage; however, I’ve always believed that part of my job as a therapist is to recommend, advise and provide the appropriate course of treatment to the best of my knowledge and abilities. (I promote certain techniques like ART since its a great treatment and many people seek it out for specific issues that they have; I get it. That doesn’t mean that I always use it; depends on what I see) So, during that massage, the therapist should at least adapt the massage to what they found with their assessment and what they find as they palpate during treatment.   If you want deep, compressive work and enjoy flailing around on a table, power to you. (Note: not all deep work is compressive) If you actually want to get better and improve whatever issues you’re having, then make sure you are getting the appropriate treatment.  The same thing is true if you go to a chiro or pt and get worked on.  You should expect that they are treating appropriately based on what they find.  Pressure and pain are not hard to create.  Anybody without any training or education whatsoever can do that.  You don’t even need to shell out your hard-earned money to get it done.  Just ask your significant other or friend to dig into you.  Hell, just piss them off and I’m sure they’ll have no problem doing it.   Similarly, it is not hard to make someone gasp for air and sweat.  Sprint around the block ten times and you can get that job done, but if you want specific adaptations and specific results, better find someone who actually understands anatomical and physiological adaptations of the body and has an idea of what they are actually doing.   Treatment and training are no different in this regard.   

Effective treatment is about finesse and getting the overactive tissue/fibers to release/relax, not compressing and creating excessive pain.  It is both an art and a science and requires a good amount of skill and touch.  Use of the appropriate modalities for the situation is key, whether that be a relaxation massage or a localized treatment with a specific tool. Deeper work just might be needed, but if it is it should be done with finesse and do the appropriate job, which is getting that overactive structure to let go. Deep tissue work? Maybe, just not in the sense that its often thought of.

-NR

Stuck at Home? Follow These Simple Steps to Make the Most of Your At-Home Strength Training

By Helen Kash, CSCS, NASM-CPT

Stuck at Home? Follow these simple steps to make the most of your at-home strength training!

By now, you’ve probably seen plenty of gyms, coaches, and avid-gym goers alike posting their home workout routines, advertising home training, and you have probably been bombarded at least once by an old Facebook friend trying to sell you some fat burning coffee (newsflash, save your money).  It can be a little overwhelming to decide what program is best for YOU and how you can optimize your time training at home. Look no further — keep reading to learn how to spot a good home training program, how to create one for yourself, and how to have a better home training session! 

No gym equipment? No worries!

First of all, take inventory of the equipment you have at home as well as things you have around the house that could be used as weights.  Do you have dumbbells, bands, a chin-up bar, a bike, etc.? If not, there are plenty of ways to make makeshift exercise equipment with everyday household items. 

Here are some of the creative uses of household items that my virtual clients and I have come up with since starting at-home training over the past few weeks:

  • Dumbbells can be substituted with wine bottles, gallon bottles of juice, cans of soup, heavy boots, or any other heavy object you can hold in one hand! 
  • Backpacks, duffel bags, heavy suitcases, or bags of soil to hold while doing squats, good mornings, and other heavy weighted exercises 
  • Water jugs or milk gallons or other heavy bottles with handles work great for rows and other upper body exercises 
  • Hardwood floors + socks or a towel make a great substitution for a slideboard 
  • Stack some of those old textbooks you never opened in college for some low step-ups or to stand on during calf raises
  • Your pets will be happy to sit on your lap while doing glute bridges and hip thrusts! 

If you get bored of bodyweight exercises or need an additional challenge, using some objects you have around the house can be a great way to add difficulty in a creative and fun way!

“…but working out at home is boring and too easy!” 

Many of the concerns I’ve heard from clients about training at home are that they will lose all their progress since they can’t train at home in the same way they do at the gym.  This is –partially– true. Even a few weeks off won’t put you back entirely to square one. But, the longer you take off, the more strength, muscle mass, and endurance you can lose.  Programming your training sessions properly can help minimize that loss.

Incorporate a tempo: for example, we can use a 313 tempo while doing a squat.  Count to three on the lowering (eccentric) portion of the squat.  Pause for one second (isometric!) at the bottom of the squat. Then, count to three on the way up (this is the concentric portion).  This increases the amount of time your muscles have to work and are under tension during each rep, which is much more challenging than breezing through the set as fast as you can.  This is also a great way to fine-tune and solidify your positioning at each point in the exercise, which will make your movement even better once you can load it with heavier weight. 

Pair exercises that train similar muscle groups: let’s use our same squat example.  If you can’t do heavy back squats at home, I may have you do a set of goblet squats followed immediately by lunges.  Your quads should be feeling pretty fatigued as if you just did some heavy barbell squats! 

Perfect your movement: grab a PVC pipe or dowel rod (or bodyweight) and do a few sets of squats, RDL’s, or any other exercise you would do with a bar.  Bonus points if you do these with a slow tempo or pause at various points to solidify and feel the proper position. Use this time to remind yourself of important cues.  Even if you can’t train these movements with a weight on your back, this is a great way to perfect your movement with minimal-to-no weight so you will move even more efficiently once you can push it heavy. 

Stay consistent!

It can be easy to fall into a pattern of slacking off from your home training sessions when you’re stuck at home.  I mean, watching 6 hours of Netflix and eating ice cream can sound a lot more appealing than doing push ups in your living room.  But, this can make it even harder to get back into a routine of training to maintain your strength for when you can get back in the gym. 

If you already had scheduled times to go to the gym, stick to these times for your home sessions.  Viewing your home sessions with the same intent as your gym sessions will help you stay focused, maintain the same good habits you have formed, and still put maximal effort into your training.  Remember, the more effort you put into your home training sessions, the easier it will be once you can get back into the gym! 

Create a designated space that you can use as your workout area, and your workout area only.  Keep all of your equipment in this space, and try to minimize the distractions of a TV playing, your kids distracting you, alerts on your phone, or any other things that you might get sidetracked with.  Especially when you are stuck at home, creating a space that you can associate with exercising will help ensure you can carve out an hour a day where you can focus purely on your training. 

Find a buddy to keep you accountable — we are all in this together!  Reach out to a gym buddy who trains at the same time as you, and check in before and after your workout.  Better yet, do some virtual training sessions with a coach who knows what YOU need to keep your strength up and still meet your goals at home (remember, my team and I are always here and willing to help!). 

Obviously, nothing beats a good workout in a physical gym.  But, there will be times when it is out of your control to get to the gym, be it travel, work obligations, or a global pandemic.  What you CAN control is what you do in spite of those things — staying consistent, adapting your training to fit your current situation, and continually putting in hard work!

Cardiomisconceptia

By: Nick Rosencutter, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, LMT

Thinking back over ten years ago to when I was starting out this whole training thing full time out of college, I remember writing about the priorities of training for fat loss, as there was a lot of misconception out there about what needed to be done to most efficiently spark the metabolic engine and lose fat.   Now, today I sit here eleven years later writing about this topic once again, after training hundreds of people.  While I would say that the understanding of these things is at least better at this point in time and over a decade later, there are still a lot of people out there who are uneducated and basing their exercise choices off of their “feelings” or what some unqualified social media “expert” said.  It is not uncommon to hear something along the lines of “Well I just need to lose some fat first, so I’m gonna do cardio.” (You’ll soon see that this makes no sense) The bottom line is this: When it comes down to the large amount of research done over the last few decades, both academically and in the trenches; and when you understand even basic exercise physiology, it is blatantly clear what is needed for optimal fat loss and I’ll give you a hint: IT IS NOT LONG DURATION AEROBIC “CARDIO.”  (though aerobic work is still extremely valuable for its own reasons when used correctly)

In order to understand fat loss from a training standpoint we need to understand how our energy systems work.  I’ve covered this in multiple articles in the past so feel free to go back and read more if you are feeling ambitious. 

Energy Systems

We have our Aerobic System and our Anaerobic System.  Within our anaerobic system, we have our Glycolytic and our Alactic pathways.   Each of these systems has its own leadership role with different modes of physical activity.  While they all work together with anything that we do, one will be the dominant system utilized for specific activities.

 Our aerobic system is primarily responsible for fueling lower intensity, longer duration activities (5 mile jog) while our anaerobic system is primarily responsible for fueling higher intensity, shorter to more moderate duration activities, with the glycolytic pathway taking care of intense activity lasting primarily between 20 and 45 seconds  (100 yard sprint) and the alactic pathway taking care of powerful, explosive bursts lasting less than 10 seconds (vertical jump, max squat).  

All of these systems are used to produce ATP, a substrate that is like our body’s “gasoline.”  We need ATP to fuel activity and for muscle contraction to occur.  Our alactic system utilizes a molecule called Creatine Phosphate to help replenish ATP at a fast rate for those explosive short burst activities (yes, this is why people supplement with creatine).  When a high intensity activity continues for longer than those 10 seconds, our glycolytic system uses a process called glycogenolysis to break down glycogen (storage form of carbohydrates; yes we need them) stored in our muscle cells into glucose, and eventually ATP, to help keep us at that intensity a little longer.  Both of these systems work WITHOUT oxygen.  That last point is an important one so remember it.  Our aerobic system works WITH oxygen to break down fatty acids and convert leftovers from the glycolytic cycle into a substance called Acetyl COA, which then goes through processes called the Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain to produce a bunch of ATP.   That little sentence there talking about fatty acids is where a lot of confusion sets in with the general public.  People assume that since long duration aerobic exercise is utilizing these fatty acids that it is great for fat loss.  Well, there are multiple reasons why this is not the case.  First, lets sum this up:

Anaerobic System (Alactic and Glycolytic)-

No oxygen, lots of intensity, shorter duration, relatively small amount of ATP produced, can’t go for very long without having to slow down or stop (because we need oxygen to replenish things)

Aerobic System-

Oxygen, lower intensity, longer duration, large amounts of ATP produced, can go for long periods of time since intensity is low enough to allow oxygen to continue shuttling things along

These can be further broken down into Alactic Power and Alactic Capacity, Glycolytic Power and Glycolytic Capacity, and Aerobic Power and Aerobic Capacity. These subsets become more important when you begin training for specific sports and competitions.

Now, building muscle is absolutely and positively the most important component of training if the goal is fat loss.  The more muscle that one has, the more fat their body will burn even at rest.  It speeds up the metabolism like nothing else and has a myriad of positive effects neurologically, structurally and hormonally throughout the body.  Strength training with enough intensity and with the right movements is key and should absolutely be the number one priority of training.  While strength training does primarily utilize the anaerobic systems, we are going to focus the rest of this article on conditioning modalities and set the record straight on “Cardio”.  (I hate this word as it gets bastardized and means absolutely nothing in regards to the specifics of what you are accomplishing with your training).  So you are already lifting hard, now what do we do about conditioning?

Now, as I mentioned before, many people assume that aerobic work is great for fat loss since you are using fat as fuel and burning X number of calories as you do it.  While you do burn some fat while you do it, the amount is insignificant when you compare it to the amount that is burned AFTER higher intensity anaerobic exercise.  Furthermore, an excessive amount of aerobic work can lead to muscle breakdown, spiked cortisol levels and a decrease in strength and power, which can all lead to more fat STORAGE. (not what you want if your goal is, umm, fat LOSS).  A recent study in the Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research compared endocrine and power/strength responses between subjects who either performed strength training alone, strength training and endurance training in a 3:1 ratio or strength training and endurance training in a 1:1 ratio after a 6 week training block. Excessively higher volume of endurance training lead to higher cortisol levels and decreases in strength (1). There are numerous studies over the years showing similar results. This is nothing new under the sun. (Please note the word excessive)

So why do we have this magnificent after effect with anaerobic work? Well, remember when I told you earlier to remember that tidbit about working WITHOUT oxygen?  That comes into play now.  When we work at those sprint paced high intensities, we put our body into what is known as oxygen debt.  If you build up enough of this debt, your body utilizes a phenomenon known as EPOC- Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption.  With EPOC, your body burns fat for hours on end AFTER you are done training.  Research has shown as many as 38 hours post training. While there are numerous studies on this over the last few decades, THIS (2) is one of my favorites, especially since it was done at UW-La Crosse, where I studied Exercise and Sports Science.   The amount of fat calories burned with EPOC ends up rendering the meager amount of calories someone burns during their elliptical workout while watching a soap opera irrelevant.  End of story, case closed.  You get the same kind of effect after a hard lifting workout.  This is precisely why you see all of those people on the ellipticals and treadmills or haphazardly jogging outside doing the same low intensity workout over and over again and never changing.  After the first couple of weeks, they never push their bodies to a point of discomfort and never force them to do anything to recover since their intensity NEVER GETS HIGH.  And as mentioned above, on top of this, the excessive amount of endurance work that is often done can lead to elevated cortisol levels and muscle loss, which contributes to more fat storage. Coincidentally, the aerobic system is what carries out the recovery from the oxygen debt that is created with anaerobic training.  Like I said, all of the systems help each other out.  They’re friends for the most part.  (However, they can clash and hurt eachother’s feelings, aka adaptations, if programming is not planned appropriately). 

Now, in no way am I saying that aerobic training is worthless.  It has a ton of value and I’ve written articles about this.  Check out this one:_Aerobic is the Word . It is very important for heart health, various aspects of performance, recovery and giving someone the ability to survive the higher intensity anaerobic work that we’ve been talking about. Not to mention, if you do aerobic work correctly, it is by no means a walk in the park. Aerobic power work can be some of the toughest stuff you’ll ever do. Without a good aerobic foundation, you are going to gas out after one or two rounds of anaerobic work and get absolutely nowhere.  I’ll say that again: an aerobic base is very necessary to be able to make it through any significant amount of higher intensity work.  And no, you’re not going to zap strength and muscle by doing a reasonable amount of aerobic work concurrently. When planned appropriately, aerobic work can actually help improve recovery from strength and power work. It just has to be planned, and not blindly overdone.

Furthermore, one can only handle so much anaerobic conditioning before burning out.  Taking a break from this activity and performing aerobic work will keep the body healthy while still allowing for at least some extra caloric output. And it absolutely can help with the overall fat loss journey. It just needs to be planned appropriately and should not be the primary focal point of training when fat loss is the main goal. Another time sticking with aerobic work is beneficial is pre competition or in season.  The last thing you need at this time is excess fatigue and burnout from doing a bunch of extra high intensity anaerobic work on top of the sport specific work that is already being done.  The right amount of aerobic work can help facilitate some recovery and supplement strength work going into a competition or season (again, provided its not too much and is planned appropriately). 

So yes, aerobic work is a great tool that absolutely should be used; however, it should not be misconstrued as a primary fat loss tool if that is the goal at hand, because it is simply not that effective of a tool for this SPECIFIC job. I.e. if your goal is to complete a marathon, then by all means go and do all of the endurance work that you need to, just be sure to plan it and supplement it with the appropriate strength work; and don’t plan on looking that lean or muscular, because you will lose muscle with that kind of endurance volume. If your goal is to lose fat as effectively as possible while building a solid body, then cut the bs, get off of the damn elliptical, stop blindly running unplanned miles and train with a proper program that will give you the physiological effects that you are looking for. (the effects we’ve talked about this entire article) Know what your goal is and know what physiological effect your training is having on your body. Otherwise what is the point?

So, we now have an idea of what is going on behind the scenes with these different modalities of training.  How about a few examples of putting them into use?  Since we are all quarantined right now, I’ll give a couple of ideas that can easily be done at home with little to no equipment.  I’ll cover some glycolytic conditioning guidelines here since they are the most effective modality for fat loss around the clock.  See the previously referenced aerobic article for guidelines on that front.  These will be a mixture of glycolytic capacity and power.

  1.  Power Jacks–  Simply perform jumping jacks as fast as you can without getting sloppy.  Do this for 30 seconds as hard and as fast as possible.  If you are truly getting into glycolytic mode, your heart rate should be over 170 and you should feel that you need to slow down or stop after the 30 seconds is up.  If this is not the case, go faster.   Rest 90 seconds and repeat for 8 to 10 rounds.  If it seems like 90 seconds is too much rest, you probably didn’t go hard enough. 
  2. Jump Rope– Perform the same layout as the jacks, but use a jump rope.  I find that the jump rope essentially forces you to go harder because you have to coordinate your hops with getting over the rope.  With either of these examples, just make sure you are prequalified to be hopping and jumping.  If you struggle to squat your own weight, I wouldn’t recommend these yet.
  3. High Step Sprint Marches in Place–  Drive your hips and arms as hard and as fast as you can for 20 to 30 second rounds with 60-90 second rest. Do 8 to 10 rounds.
  4. Bear Crawls– These are always a pretty good ass kicker.  Do them at a fast pace and they’re really fun.  Be sure to keep your torso and hips solid as you crawl. You shouldn’t be flailing around like a fish out of water.  Use the same rounds as above.
  5. Sprints–  Go outside, approximate 80-100 yards and sprint hard.  Again, you should be in some kind of decent shape prior to doing this. Rest 2 to 3 minutes between rounds.  If you are going hard on these, you should need at least 2 to 3 minutes to recover.  If you have one or are in a gym setting, pushing the prowler here works wonders.  Perform 5 to 10 rounds. We are looking for maximal power output with each round here, so full recovery is key.
  6. Stair Sprints–  Sprint up and down your stairs for 20 to 30 seconds and rest 90 seconds to 3 minutes depending on how gassed you are.   Perform 8 to 10 rounds. 90 second range will be more geared towards capacity while 3 minute plus range will be more geared towards power. Do one for a couple of weeks and then switch. Simply marching fast up and down the stairs may be enough for some of you.
  7. Bike Sprints– Hop on your bike and pedal as hard as you can for 20 to 30 seconds.  Rest for 90 seconds. You can increase rest towards 3 minutes like the last two examples to skew it more towards the power end.
  8. Boxing– Either with a bag or with air (shadow boxing),  throw punch combos at a fast pace for 20 to 30 seconds.   Start with a basic jab cross combo.  If you are not familiar with this, choose another modality for now. 
  9. Medball or Rope Slams– Leading with your hips and driving with your whole body, repetitively slam the ball or ropes for the same intervals as above.

8 to 10 rounds is a good starting point for most of these.  You can also perform two series of 4 to 5 rounds.  For example, you do 5 hard rounds, take a prolonged rest (5 to 8 minutes or until you’re close to full recovery) and then perform the second 5 rounds.   And yet a third option is to perform these circuit style. Pick 4 to 5 of them and simply go to the next one after the alotted rest period. These are just a few possible examples out of hundreds of possibilities. Whichever route you go, the key is getting the intensity to a high enough level to make your body go glycolytic and create enough oxygen debt to get the after effect we are looking for in order to burn fat calories and get a giant metabolic spike around the clock.  In regards to how long these should be done, perform these for around 4 weeks and then perform aerobic work (see other linked article) for 4 to 6 weeks. With general fat loss, this tends to give good results while avoiding burnout and keeping things healthy. If you are new to training, then you will want to perform a cycle of aerobic work first; otherwise, you will not be able to handle the anaerobic work. Athletes training for specific sports will need different guidelines, but that is a topic for another article.

Here’s an oldie but a goodie from my Southridge Athletic Club days. This is the kind of intensity you need to generate, as Kollin shows here. Also, here’s yet another way you could perform these type of intervals at home. Stack some weight on something that you can push and you have your own homemade prowler.

So if you’ve been stuck in a rut for any period of time and your fat loss seems to be stagnant or worse yet, is increasing, there’s a good chance this is the solution you need.  Its going be hard work and you won’t be able to watch that soap opera or game show while you do it, but success takes some sweat and guts.  Now go train.

Sources:

  • (2) Mikat, R P, M D Schuenke, and J M McBride. “Effect of an acute period of resistance exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: implications for body mass management.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 86.5 (2002): 411-7. pubmed.gov. 29 Jan. 2002. 18 May 2009 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11882927?dopt=AbstractPlus>.
  • (1) Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N. “Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. March 2016- Volume 30- Issue 3. P.693-702.

Don’t Forget about the Adductors

If there is one thing that I’ve seen since coming into the fitness industry over 12 years ago, it’s the growth in the knowledge of the need for more specific glute work with a large number of people out there living today.       Poor glute function often leads to an overworked low back and/or aggravated knees along with less than optimal movement quality.  The fact that more and more people are becoming aware of this is great; however, there are other players around the hip and leg that are also very important to take care of, and in my opinion, a specific group of these often gets sad because they are not addressed and not included often enough in the conversation.  While strengthening the glute muscles is great to help keep the outer hip solid, people often forget that there is a VERY LARGE section of muscle on the INSIDE of the hip and thigh.  Bring on the adductors!

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Amplify the Slow Twitch

rufp weights

When it comes to skeletal muscle, our bodies contain different types of muscle fibers.  Generally speaking, there are slow twitch and fast twitch fibers.  Slow twitch are more geared towards endurance and low force activities like a marathon run while fast twitch are more geared towards fast, high powered, high force and shorter duration activities like a sprint.  Different muscles throughout the body will generally be composed of more of one than the other.  Furthermore, different people will genetically have more of one than the other.

While fast twitch can technically be divided to multiple different subsets, the two main subsets agreed upon by most are type a and b; with type a known as fast twitch oxidative.  Fast twitch oxidative fibers have some good potential for good force and power output while still having the capability to assist with endurance activities.  Through specific training, we can manipulate them to develop their oxidative potential to a certain extent. (or manipulate them the other way if that is the goal).  By developing this oxidative potential in the weight room, these fibers can benefit an endurance athlete to a greater extent outside of the weight room.  In addition to this, while most endurance athletes seem to grasp the concept that slow twitch fibers are utilized heavily with their runs or their bike rides, many don’t realize that they can be developed and trained in the weight room.  How do we do this? The answer is Tempo Lifting.

While there is more than one way to do this, I will discuss a method we have been using with a former elite long track speed skater now turned competitive cyclist.  I took a lot of this specific programming idea from sports scientist legend Yuri Verkhoshansky and his “Special Strength Training Manual for Coaches” and adapted it how I needed to for the task at hand.

Using the Yoke Squat as our main exercise, we will do the following for the first and key part of the training session on one day in the current programming phase.

In 1 series, he’ll hit a set of 15 to 20 slow tempo squats (currently 3 seconds down and 3 seconds up) to tap into his slow twitch fibers and get some hypertrophy out of them, followed by a set of 20 to 25 explosive squats to tap into his fast twitch oxidative fibers in order to prepare his body for the pace changes that can occur in a race. This is done for 3 series in his current program.  There is 90 seconds rest between sets and 3 to 4 minutes rest between each series (of 2 sets).  The weight for the explosive set is lighter than the slow tempo set.

To hit the oxidative fibers, we need enough resistance to require the body to utilize the fast twitch fibers (need to tap into their larger motor neuron) but also enough time with that resistance to tap into the oxidative side of things.  The multiple series of the high reps with enough resistance and the explosive nature of the reps is a recipe to make this happen. So within these series we accomplish a few good things that are race specific:

1. We get some slow twitch hypertrophy (muscle growth) to help with their resiliance during the course of the race

2. We get some fast twitch oxidative development to help the slow twitch fibers on their journey and to help with the turbo boosters that will be needed at various points of the race

3. We train our bodies and muscle fibers to be more resiliant, stronger and more adapative to the tempo, intensity and pace changes that will inevitably occur through different stages of an actual race.

 

He follows this up with prowler pushes used in a similar manner.  Trip 1 is slower paced followed up immediately by Trip 2 at a sprint pace. This is done for 5 to 6 sets. This is then followed by different accessory exercises such as glute ham raises and static inverted row holds.

His other lifting day in the program is focused on max strength and speed strength, which are also very important to any endurance race enthusiast though also often overlooked.  He then has multiple bike days where we will develop specific energy systems and their subsets depending on the stage we are in leading up to the race.  We can cover more on these other qualities in another article.

The goals for this article are to make you aware that we can develop and train slow twitch and the oxidative capability of type a fast twitch fibers in the weight room to help performance in that next race.  Check out the videos below of Liam hitting his squat sets.

 

Tempo Squats

 

Explosive/Fast Twitch Oxidative Squats

 

Are you getting the most out of your race performance?  Train with a purpose!

Note:  It is essential that you have a decent strength training base built up before diving into something like this.  You should know how to squat with proper movement/form and should have a decent level of general strength built up.  Also, Liam is an elite athlete and can handle the workload and volume discussed.  Those at a lower training level might not need as much.  This is where the individual coaching comes into play 🙂